In UNCLOS analysis, “azimuth” means the bearing of a geographical
position, measured clockwise from true or magnetic north through
In LOAC-governed situations under the “other rules of international
law” clauses in UNCLOS, a different definition may apply. The same
may be the situation if the UN Charter supersedes UNCLOS or if jus
cogens norms apply.
The ECDIS Former Glossary, page 2, defined “azimuth” as “[t]he
bearing of a geographical position, measured clockwise from north
through 360 degrees.” The ECDIS Glossary does not define “azimuth.”
The DOD Dictionary suggested amending the ECDIS definition to
include either true or magnetic north. Depending on the situation,
mariners and other oceans users may use true north, i.e., as charts
would publish bearings from the actual pole, or magnetic north, as
might be observed from a magnetic compass.
Section 17 defines “bearing;” § 76, “geographic coordinates” or
“geographical coordinates” or “coordinates;” § 90, “latitude;” § 97,